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What is an anemometer?

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By: Guest
Date: Thu-Feb-18-2016-
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Anemometers are devices used to measure wind speed. Anemometers which are used at weather stations., were thought to come into existence around the year 1450.There are two classes of anemometers; one which measures the winds velocity, another which measures its pressure. However, because the velocity and pressure of wind are so closely connected a particular instrument usually can measure both.
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A cup anemometer is one type of velocity anemometer. Cup anemometers were invented in 1846 by Dr. John Robinson. This type of anemometer was made up of four cups mounted at the end of four horizontal arms. Air flowed past these cups in such a way that the flow was related to the speed of the wind. The average speed was determined by counting how many times the cups turned. Later discoveries found that the size of the cups and the length of the arms holding the cups were important in determining the actual speed of the wind.

Robinson's four cup anemometer was modified by John Paterson in 1926 into a three cup model which proved to be more efficient. This model had only a three percent error up to wind speeds that didn't exceed sixty miles per hour. The three cup anemometer was again perfected upon in 1991 by Derek Weston, with his model measuring both wind speed and pressure.

Another form of anemometer is the hot wire anemometer which uses a fine wire heated to a particular temperature. When wind passes this anemometer, its speed is determined by the degree of cooling the wire undergoes. While this type of anemometer is delicate, it is also very accurate.

More recently developed velocity anemometers are called Laser Doppler anemometers. These use a light beam from a laser to measure wind speed. Particles which come in contact with the beam produce what's known as the Doppler affect which in turns allows for the measurement of wind speed.

A windmill anemometer also known as a propeller anemometer is another type of velocity anemometer. This mechanical anemometer must be placed so that it is parallel to the wind in order for an accurate measurement. Therefore, it is set up horizontally to do this.

The earliest pressure anemometer was known as the Plate Anemometer. These simple anemometers were plates that were suspended from the top so that wind could deflect the plate. Invented by Italian architect Leon Alberti, these anemometers were later modified with a wind vane so that they were not moving when there was no wind.

In 1775 James Lind invented the tube anemometer to measure wind pressure.Lind's anemometer consisted of a glass U tube which contained a liquid. This tube was bent in such a way so that it was facing the wind and so its one vertical end was parallel to the way wind flowed.

In 1892 William Dines invented a metal pressure tube anemometer which measured the pressure differences between two sections of the instrument. This anemometer turned out to be very accurate with only a one percent error.

This is a broad overview of the wind anemometer. There are many types of anemometers and they are able to measure wind speed in miles per hour or in knots. While the most basic anemometer can measure wind speed, the more complex ones can measure speed, pressure and wind direction.










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[d] By: Guest
Date: Thu-Feb-18-2016
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.An anemometer is an instrument that measures wind speed and wind pressure. Anemometers are important tools for meteorologists, who study weather patterns. They are also important to the work of physicists, who study the way air moves.

The most common type of anemometer has three or four cups attached to horizontal arms. The arms are attached to a vertical rod. As the wind blows, the cups rotate, making the rod spin. The stronger the wind blows, the faster the rod spins. The anemometer counts the number of rotations, or turns, which is used to calculate wind speed. Because wind speeds are not consistentóthere are gusts and lullsówind speed is usually averaged over a short period of time. 

A similar type of anemometer counts the revolutions made by windmill-style blades. The rod of windmill anemometers rotates horizontally.

Other anemometers calculate wind speed in different ways. A hot-wire anemometer takes advantage of the fact that air cools a heated object when it flows over it. (That is why a breeze feels refreshing on a hot day.) In a hot-wire anemometer, an electrically heated, thin wire is placed in the wind. The amount of power needed to keep the wire hot is used to calculate the wind speed. The higher the wind speed, the more power is required to keep the wire at a constant temperature

Wind speed can also be determined by measuring air pressure. (Air pressure itself is measured by an instrument called a barometer.) A tube anemometeruses air pressure to determine the wind pressure, or speed. A tube anemometer measures the air pressure inside a glass tube that is closed at one end. By comparing the air pressure inside the tube to the air pressure outside the tube, wind speed can be calculated. 

Other anemometers work by measuring the speed of sound waves or by shining laser beams on tiny particles in the wind and measuring their effect.

Uses of Anemometers

Anemometers are used at almost all weather stations, from the frigid Arctic to warm equatorial regions. Wind speed helps indicate a change in weather patterns, such as an approaching storm, which is important for pilots, engineers, and climatologists. 

Aerospace engineers and physicists often use laser anemometers. This type of anemometer is used in velocity experiments. Velocity is the measurement of the rate and direction of change in the position of an object. Laser anemometers calculate the wind speed around cars, airplanes, and spacecraft, for instance. Anemometers help engineers make these vehicles more aerodynamic.
[d] By: mintlysocial
Date: Fri-Dec-30-2016
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