< Languages travel in various ways, for example:
- As a result of settlers migrating and not adopting the local language. (This is how English reached America, for example).
- By conquest, if the conquerors do not adopt a local language. (This is how Spanish and Portguese became firmly established languages in Latin America).
- By trade, by active learning and teaching.
- By use as a medium of instruction in schools, especially if schooling is virtually complusory. (This is one reason for the intensifcation of nationalism in much of Central Europe in the 19th century. For example, in 1825 Prussia made elementary education compulsory. For Polish-speaking kids this meant learning German).
These modes of travel are not necessarily exclusive. For example, the distinction between conquerors and settlers is not always straightforward.