PHYSICAL SCIENCE QUESTIONS
1.A body of porous rock through which groundwater moves is called an
2.The process by which sediments become rock is called
3.The underlying cause of erosion is
B) chemical activity in the upper mantle
C) ice formation between mineral crystals
D) dust storms
A) includes chemical and colloidal weathering
B) is a type of disintegration of rocks and earth materials.
C) rarely affects rocks composed of ferromagnesian minerals
D) can be found only in areas with an average annual humidity above 40 percent
5.As a river valley matures
A) the amount of sediment carried to the ocean invariably decreases
B) the river bed tends to become straighter and narrower
C) the drainage basin serviced by the river tends to contract
D) the river channel broadens and a floodplain develops.
6.The water table below the land's surface
A) is always flat (perfectly horizontal) since water seeks its own level
B) must occur in sandstone if it is to "flow".
C) rarely fluctuates in any given region by more than a few centimeters per century
D) is the upper surface of the saturated zone of rock
7.Which of the following combinations is most likely to result in a violent volcanic eruption?
A) Low viscosity with little formation of gases
B) A magma rich in silica and containing lots of trapped gases
C) Calcite bedrock penetrated by lava containing a high percentage of iron.
D) Rapid cooling of magma with little gas content
8.According to the rock cycle
A) most rocks are virtually indestructible
B) magma can only form from melted sedimentary rocks
C) sedimentary rocks can be transformed into metamorphic rocks
D) sedimentary rocks are more easily eroded than igneous and metamorphic rocks
9.The crust and the outermost part of the mantle make up the
B) outer core
10.The type of fault that occurs where two plates slide past each other is a
A) normal fault
B) thrust fault
C) transform fault
D) reverse fault
11.Which of the following lists the successive stages of mountain building in their most likely order?
A) Crumpling of igneous rocks, folding of sedimentary rocks underneath, and collapse of a volcanic cone
B) Deposition of thick sequences of sedimentary strata; tectonic compression causing crumpling, folding, and uplift of the rocks; stream erosion.
C) Stream erosion of sedimentary rocks followed by slow sinking and down warping
D) Landslides followed by continental glaciation and ultimately retreat of the glaciers
12.A region about 100 km thick under the lithosphere composed of "weak" rock is the
B) outer core
A) do not support the idea of evolution
B) generally are of little use when it comes to dating and correlating rock strata
C) can be used to help reconstruct ancient environments
D) are so rare that they are primarily the domain of extremely wealthy collectors
14.An annular eclipse of the sun
A) occurs on average once a year
B) can only occur when there is a full moon.
C) is the situation were a ring of sunlight appears around the rim of the moon
D) often produces sunspots, solar flares, and satellite disruptions
15.Approximately how long does it take our moon to go through the complete cycle of its phases?
A) 21 1/3 days
B) 27 1/3 days
C) 29 1/2 days
D) 31 1/3 days
16.Which planet has the following characteristics? Shows phases similar to the moon, is always difficult to observe with the naked eye, has very long days (each equivalent to 176 earth days), has almost no atmosphere.
17.A group of objects, all relatively small (less than 1000 km in diameter) orbiting the sun between Mars and Jupiter are known as the
A) lesser planets
B) inner planets
18.Which of the following is not true about comets?
A) They follow nearly circular orbits around the earth.
B) They are believed to be composed of ice and dust, and may have a solid nucleus
C) Comets that pass near earth may have periods ranging from decades to millions of years.
D) In 1577 Tycho Brahe established that a comet was truly a heavenly body rather than simply a phenomenon in the upper atmosphere.
A) are correlated with changes in the energy output of the sun
B) did not have any noticeable effect on earth-based phenomena before the invention of modern electronic equipment.
C) do not affect the intensity of the aurora as seen on the earth
D) increased dramatically in number and intensity during the late 1600s, leading to the "Little Ice Age".
20.The differences between the intrinsic and apparent brightness of a star can be expressed as
A) mass versus volume
B) temperature versus color
C) total energy given off versus brightness seen from the earth
D) age versus spectral spread
21.The sun consists largely of
A) hydrogen and helium
B) oxygen and nitrogen
C) carbon and sodium
D) neon and argon
22.On a very clear night you can see a band of misty light. This is
A) the aurora
B) the Milky Way, composed of the other stars in our galaxy
C) due to modern air pollution and stratospheric ozone destruction
D) an optical illusion, known as the Milky Way, caused by the refraction of starlight in the atmosphere.
23.If the stars of our galaxy did not revolve around its center
A) the galaxy would collapse due to gravitational attraction.
B) the stars would be flung out into space due to centripetal force
C) they would collide with one another.
D) they would quickly overheat and burn out
24.Which of the following is not a significant source of radio waves from space?
B) spinning comets and asteroids
C) motion of ions and electrons in very hot gases
D) high-speed electrons moving in magnetic fields
25.Cosmic radiation is a form of
A) ionizing radiation
B) fast moving iron atom nuclei
C) ultraviolet radiation
D) gamma rays
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